Artículo I. Caracterización de la situación silvicultural de la teca (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) en plantaciones y sistemas agroforestales en la Península de Nicoya, Costa Rica
Rivera Céspedes, Marcela Victoria
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The suitability of teak plantation systems, their physical characteristics and its rapid growth and performance, make it a highly prized species in the market. However, the quality and quantity of product is dependent of site (soil, altitude, ph), the genetic material used, and silvicultural practices (pruning, thinning, fertilization). Forest plantations and agroforestry systems, in addition to providing wood, work options and soil protection, provide ecosystem services such as carbon storage, mitigating the effects of climate change. The aim of this study was to characterize the current teak production in Hojancha, located in Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This research was carried on from January to August 2014. In this period the growth of teak was evaluated in small block plantations and in lineal plantations (boundary trees). The farm selection criteria was that the plantations should have a good silvicultural management and be more than three years old. The sampling points were randomly distributed in all Hojancha farms using SIG software. Dasometric measurements, three density, thinning activities, three mortality, plant health, structural defects and dasometric measurements were done and also asked through a survey to the farmers. Using the data from measurements and applying alometric equations, the timber volume, the biomass and carbon above ground was calculated. The results show that there is a variation in management practices by the farmers, especially in three density plantation age and thinning percentage. The highest values for diameter at breast height (DBH) were 27,8 cm and the lowest were 13 cm, the maximum sawlog volume was 121,80 m3 ha-1 at the age of 10 years, while minimum (44,01 m3 ha-1) were found at 7 years. To the maximum values of 103,23 biomass t ha-1 and minimum 37,33 t ha-1, while the maximum for carbon were 51,61 Mg ha-1 and the minimum recorded 18,66 Mgha-1. Comparing the mean annual increment (MAI) dbh of the three production systems, the maximum value was recorded in plantations at 4 years (3,78 cm yr-1) and the minimum value clumps at 19 years (1,16 cm yr-1). Finally, positive and highly significant correlations (p<0,0001) between the DBH and crown diameter were found, and between the DBH and height of the cup, both for teak growing in small block plantations and as lineal plantations. The exploration of Hojancha, allowed to determine that plantations are the predominant production systems for teak. In addition, productivity parameters such as DBH and volume, depend directly of silvicultural activities and site quality (soil type, elevation, wind).